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Research on Thought Field Therapy®

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TFT Research List: Listed Chronologically
Quantitative Studies Only

* Asterisk Denotes Random Controlled Trial (RCT)

Folkes, C. (2002). Thought Field Therapy and trauma recovery. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 4, 99-103.

Abstract:

People who have been repeatedly exposed to traumatic events are at high risk for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Refugees and immigrants can certainly be in this category, but seldom seek professional therapy due to cultural, linguistic, financial, and historical reasons. A rapid and culturally sensitive treatment is highly desirable with communities new to Western-style healing. In this study of 31 clients (aged 5-48 yrs.), a pre-test was given, all participants received Thought Field Therapy (TFT), and were then post-tested after 30 days. Pre-test and post-test total scores showed a significant drop in all symptom sub-groupings of the criteria for PTSD. The findings of this study contrast with the outcomes of other methods of treatment, and are a significant addition to the growing body of data on refugee mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)

Sakai, C., Connolly, S., & Oas, P. (2010). Treatment of PTSD in Rwanda genocide survivors Using Thought Field Therapy. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 12(1), 41-49.

Abstract:

Thought Field Therapy (TFT), which utilizes the self-tapping of specific acupuncture points while recalling a traumatic event or cue, was applied with 50 orphaned adolescents who had been suffering with symptoms of PTSD since the Rwandan genocide 12 years earlier. Following a single TFT session, scores on a PTSD checklist completed by caretakers and on a self-rated PTSD checklist had significantly decreased (p < .0001 on both measures). The number of participants exceeding the PTSD cutoffs decreased from 100% to 6% on the caregiver ratings and from 72% to 18% on the self-ratings. The findings were corroborated by informal interviews with the adolescents and the caregivers, which indicated dramatic reductions of PTSD symptoms such as flashbacks, nightmares, bedwetting, depression, isolation, difficulty concentrating, jumpiness, and aggression. Following the study, the use of TFT on a self-applied and peer-utilized basis became part of the culture at the orphanage, and on one-year follow-up the initial improvements had been maintained as shown on both checklists.

PMID:20828089  [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

*Connolly, S. M., & Sakai, C. E. (2011). Brief trauma symptom intervention with Rwandan genocide survivors using Thought Field Therapy. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 13(3), 161-172.

Abstract:

This randomized waitlist control study examined the efficacy of Thought Field Therapy (TFT) in reducing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder symptoms in survivors of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Participants included 145 adult genocide survivors randomly assigned to an immediate TFT treatment group or a waitlist control group. Group differences adjusted for pretest scores and repeated measures anovas were statistically significant at p < .001 for 9 of 10 TSI trauma subscales and for both severity and frequency on the MPSS, with moderate to large effect sizes. Reduced trauma symptoms for the group receiving TFT were found for all scales. Reductions in trauma symptoms were sustained at a 2-year follow-up assessment. Limitations, clinical implications, and future research are discussed.  PMID:22708146 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

*Irgens, A., Dammen, T., Nysaeter T., & Hoffart, A. (2012). Thought Field Therapy (TF) as a treatment for anxiety symptoms: A randomized controlled trial. Explore, 8(6) 331-337.

Abstract:

Objective: To investigate whether thought field therapy (TFT) has any impact on anxiety symptoms in patients with a wide range of anxiety disorders. Design: Forty-five patients who were randomized to either TFT (n = 23) or a waiting list (n = 22) condition. The wait-list group was reassessed and compared with the TFT group two and a half months after the initial evaluation.  After the assessment, the wait-list patients received treatment with TFT.  All 45 patients were followed up one to two weeks after TFT treatment, as well as at three and 12 months after treatment. Subjects:  Patients with an anxiety disorder, mostly outpatients.  Intervention: TFT aims to influence the body’s bioenergy field by tapping on specific points along energy meridians, thereby relieving anxiety and other symptoms. Results: Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare the TFT and the wait-list group. The TFT group had a significantly better outcome on two measures of anxiety and one measure of function. Follow-up data for all patients taken showed a significant decrease in all symptoms during the one to two weeks between the pretreatment and the post-treatment assessments.  The significant improvement seen after treatment was maintained at the three- and 12-month assessments. Conclusion: The results suggest that TFT may have an enduring anxiety-reducing effect. Registration number NCT00202709, http://Clinical.Trials.gov  Key Words: Thought field therapy, TF, psychotherapy, anxiety disorders.

*Connolly, S. M., Roe-Sepowitz, D., Sakai, C. E., & Edwards, J. (2013). Utilizing community resources to treat PTSD: A randomized controlled study using Thought Field Therapy. African Journal of Traumatic Stress, 3(1), 24-32.

Abstract:

The use of Thought Field Therapy (TFT), a brief therapy technique, is examined in a randomized controlled study, to determine if there is a significant difference in the reduction of trauma symptoms between the treated group and the untreated group. Study participants in the waitlist group received treatment after having completing the posttest. Prior to the study, TFT techniques were taught to Rwandan community leaders, who then provided one-time individual trauma-focused TFT interventions to one hundred and sixty four adult survivors of the 1994 Rwandan genocide in their native language, Kinyarwanda. Pre- and post-intervention assessments of trauma symptoms used were the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) and the Modified Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale (MPSS) translated into Kinyarwanda. Significant differences were found in trauma symptoms and level of PTSD symptom severity and frequency between the treatment and the waitlist control groups. Participants in the waitlist group experienced significant reductions in trauma symptoms following their subsequent treatments, which took place after the first posttest. These positive outcomes suggest that a one-time, community leader facilitated trauma-focused TFT intervention may be beneficial with protracted PTSD in genocide survivors. Key words: Community Resources, PTSD, Rwanda, Thought Field Therapy, Trauma Treatment Keywords: AJTS June 2013 3(1): 00-00

*Robson, R. H., Robson, P. M.  Ludwig, R., Mitabu C., & Phillips, C. (2016). Effectiveness of Thought Field Therapy provided by newly instructed community workers to a traumatized population in Uganda: A randomized trial. Current Research in Psychology. doi:10.3844/crpsp.201

Abstract:

Thought Field Therapy (TFT) is a promising treatment for posttraumatic stress in a resource poor environment. This study further explores the benefits of this treatment in a rural population in Uganda, which had suffered from the psychological consequences of previous violent conflict. Thirty-six local community workers received a two-day training in TFT trauma intervention and treated 256 volunteers with symptoms suggestive of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) who had been randomly allocated to a treatment or waitlist (control) group. Assessment was by the Posttraumatic Checklist for Civilians (PCL-C). One week after treatment, the treated group scores had improved significantly from 58 to 26.1. The waitlist group scores did improve without treatment, from 61.2 to 47, although significantly less than the treatment group, but improved markedly to 26.4 following treatment. There was some evidence of persisting benefit 19 months later. This study supports the value of TFT as a rapid, efficient and effective therapy, empowering traumatized communities to treat themselves, although repeated treatment may still be needed.  Keywords: Thought Field Therapy, PTSD, Uganda, Conflict, Community Therapists

A Literature Review of PTSD/TFT Studies in Africa

Dunnewold, A.L. (2014) Thought Field Therapy efficacy following large scale traumatic events. Current Research in Psychology, 5(1), 34-39. doi:10.38/crpsp.2014

Abstract:

Thought Field Therapy Efficacy Following Large Scale Traumatic Events: Description of Four Studies Thought Field Therapy (TFT) has been shown to reduce symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress (PTS) with trauma survivors in four studies in Africa. In a 2006 preliminary study, orphaned Rwandan adolescents, who reported ongoing trauma symptoms since the 1994 genocide, were treated with TFT. A 2008 Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) examined the efficacy of TFT treatments facilitated by Rwandan Community leaders in reducing PTS symptoms in adult survivors of the 1994 genocide. Results of the 2008 study were replicated in a second RCT in Rwanda in 2009. A fourth RCT in Uganda (in preparation for submission) demonstrated significant differences in a third community leader-administered TFT treatment. The studies described here suggest that one-time, community leader-facilitated TFT interventions may be beneficial with protracted PTS in genocide survivors.

Keywords: Posttraumatic Stress (PTS), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), 1994 Rwandan Genocide, Thought Field Therapy (TFT), Energy Psychology, Trauma, Trauma Survivors, Genocide Survivors, Community-Based Psychological Intervention 

A Qualitative Study/Follow-up Published in a Peer-Reviewed Online Journal

Edwards J. (2016). Healing in Rwanda: The words of the therapists. The International Journal of Healing and Caring, 16(1). Retrieved from http://ijhc.org/2015/12/ijhc-master-table-of-contents-full/

Abstract:

In 2009, four therapists from the United Sates presented the basic algorithm training in Thought Field Therapy (TFT) to 36 respected community members at the Izere Center (Center for Hope) in the Northern District of Rwanda. A year later, 35 of the trained therapists reported in an interview that they had treated an average of 37.50 people each (SD = 25.37). They had met with each person an average of 3.19 sessions (SD = 1.08) to assist with various issues. They reported that they had treated from 3 (n = 1, 2.9%) to 123 (n = 1, 2.9%) people. They also shared their experiences during the year following treatment. The therapists reported that prior to the Thought Field Therapy treatments, their clients had experienced anger, fear, headaches, hopelessness, anxiety, loneliness, and sadness. They reported that after the treatment, people’s lives had changed. They felt happy, their trauma was gone, they felt better than before they had come to the therapist for help, they had regained hope, they wanted to work, and their fears were gone. The therapists reported that TFT had made a difference when their clients took it seriously and wanted help, the clients had memories of the trauma and knew what they wanted to work on, the therapists prepared the clients for TFT by explaining it, and the clients followed directions. They reported that it did not appear to help the clients when the clients went home to conditions of poverty and confused the adversities of poverty with the symptoms of genocide trauma, the clients were not aware of the problem, the clients wanted to beg or misled the therapist, and the clients doubted that it would work. The clients were pleased with their treatments; gave testimonies about the help they had received; were grateful; returned to say, “Thank you;” and brought other clients for treatment. The therapists believed that TFT had made a difference in the community. The therapists reported that TFT is really effective, they indicated that a positive aspect of TFT is that people can treat themselves, and they recommended that TFT be used throughout Rwanda. Key words: Thought Field Therapy, TFT, Energy Psychology, Rwanda, PTSD, Trauma

Studies Grouped by Category (Quantitative Studies Only) * = RCT

         Below, the studies are listed in the following categories: anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, a literature review of PTSD/TFT studies in Africa, depression, anger (Anger/Irritability Scale), flashbacks/intrusive memories (Intrusive Experiences Scale), avoidance (Defensive Avoidance Scale), dissociation (Dissociation Scale), sexual distress (Sexual Concerns Scale), dysfunctional sexual behavior (Dysfunctional Sexual Behavior Scale), self-esteem/self-concept (Impaired Self-Reference Scale), and acting out behavior (Tension Reduction Behavior Scale).

Anxiety

*Connolly, S. M., & Sakai, C. E. (2011). Brief trauma symptom intervention with Rwandan genocide survivors using Thought Field Therapy. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 13(3), 161-172.

Abstract:

This randomized waitlist control study examined the efficacy of Thought Field Therapy (TFT) in reducing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder symptoms in survivors of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Participants included 145 adult genocide survivors randomly assigned to an immediate TFT treatment group or a waitlist control group. Group differences adjusted for pretest scores and repeated measures anovas were statistically significant at p < .001 for 9 of 10 TSI trauma subscales and for both severity and frequency on the MPSS, with moderate to large effect sizes. Reduced trauma symptoms for the group receiving TFT were found for all scales. Reductions in trauma symptoms were sustained at a 2-year follow-up assessment. Limitations, clinical implications, and future research are discussed.  PMID:22708146 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

*Irgens, A., Dammen, T., Nysaeter T., & Hoffart, A. (2012). Thought Field Therapy (TF) as a treatment for anxiety symptoms: A randomized controlled trial. Explore, 8(6), 331-337.

Abstract:

Objective: To investigate whether thought field therapy (TFT) has any impact on anxiety symptoms in patients with a wide range of anxiety disorders. Design: Forty-five patients who were randomized to either TFT (n = 23) or a waiting list (n = 22) condition. The wait-list group was reassessed and compared with the TFT group two and a half months after the initial evaluation.  After the assessment, the wait-list patients received treatment with TFT.  All 45 patients were followed up one to two weeks after TFT treatment, as well as at three and 12 months after treatment. Subjects:  Patients with an anxiety disorder, mostly outpatients.  Intervention: TFT aims to influence the body’s bioenergy field by tapping on specific points along energy meridians, thereby relieving anxiety and other symptoms. Results: Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare the TFT and the wait-list group. The TFT group had a significantly better outcome on two measures of anxiety and one measure of function. Follow-up data for all patients taken showed a significant decrease in all symptoms during the one to two weeks between the pretreatment and the post-treatment assessments.  The significant improvement seen after treatment was maintained at the three- and 12-month assessments. Conclusion: The results suggest that TFT may have an enduring anxiety-reducing effect. Registration number NCT00202709, http://Clinical.Trials.gov  Key Words: Thought field therapy, TF, psychotherapy, anxiety disorders.

*Connolly, S. M., Roe-Sepowitz, D., Sakai, C. E., & Edwards, J. (2013). Utilizing community resources to treat PTSD: A randomized controlled study using Thought Field Therapy. African Journal of Traumatic Stress, 3(1), 24-32.

Abstract:

The use of Thought Field Therapy (TFT), a brief therapy technique, is examined in a randomized controlled study, to determine if there is a significant difference in the reduction of trauma symptoms between the treated group and the untreated group. Study participants in the waitlist group received treatment after having completing the posttest. Prior to the study, TFT techniques were taught to Rwandan community leaders, who then provided one-time individual trauma-focused TFT interventions to one hundred and sixty four adult survivors of the 1994 Rwandan genocide in their native language, Kinyarwanda. Pre- and post-intervention assessments of trauma symptoms used were the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) and the Modified Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale (MPSS) translated into Kinyarwanda. Significant differences were found in trauma symptoms and level of PTSD symptom severity and frequency between the treatment and the waitlist control groups. Participants in the waitlist group experienced significant reductions in trauma symptoms following their subsequent treatments, which took place after the first posttest. These positive outcomes suggest that a one-time, community leader facilitated trauma-focused TFT intervention may be beneficial with protracted PTSD in genocide survivors. Key words: Community Resources, PTSD, Rwanda, Thought Field Therapy, Trauma Treatment Keywords: AJTS June 2013 3(1): 00-00

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Folkes, C. (2002). Thought Field Therapy and trauma recovery. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 4, 99-103.

Abstract:

People who have been repeatedly exposed to traumatic events are at high risk for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Refugees and immigrants can certainly be in this category, but seldom seek professional therapy due to cultural, linguistic, financial, and historical reasons. A rapid and culturally sensitive treatment is highly desirable with communities new to Western-style healing. In this study of 31 clients (aged 5-48 yrs.), a pre-test was given, all participants received Thought Field Therapy (TFT), and were then post-tested after 30 days. Pre-test and post-test total scores showed a significant drop in all symptom sub-groupings of the criteria for PTSD. The findings of this study contrast with the outcomes of other methods of treatment, and are a significant addition to the growing body of data on refugee mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)

Sakai, C., Connolly, S., & Oas, P. (2010). Treatment of PTSD in Rwanda genocide survivors using Thought Field Therapy. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 12(1), 41-49.

Abstract:

Thought Field Therapy (TFT), which utilizes the self-tapping of specific acupuncture points while recalling a traumatic event or cue, was applied with 50 orphaned adolescents who had been suffering with symptoms of PTSD since the Rwandan genocide 12 years earlier. Following a single TFT session, scores on a PTSD checklist completed by caretakers and on a self-rated PTSD checklist had significantly decreased (p < .0001 on both measures). The number of participants exceeding the PTSD cutoffs decreased from 100% to 6% on the caregiver ratings and from 72% to 18% on the self-ratings. The findings were corroborated by informal interviews with the adolescents and the caregivers, which indicated dramatic reductions of PTSD symptoms such as flashbacks, nightmares, bedwetting, depression, isolation, difficulty concentrating, jumpiness, and aggression. Following the study, the use of TFT on a self-applied and peer-utilized basis became part of the culture at the orphanage, and on one-year follow-up the initial improvements had been maintained as shown on both checklists.

PMID:20828089  [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

*Connolly, S. M., & Sakai, C. E. (2011). Brief trauma symptom intervention with Rwandan genocide survivors using Thought Field Therapy. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 13(3), 161-172.

Abstract:

This randomized waitlist control study examined the efficacy of Thought Field Therapy (TFT) in reducing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder symptoms in survivors of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Participants included 145 adult genocide survivors randomly assigned to an immediate TFT treatment group or a waitlist control group. Group differences adjusted for pretest scores and repeated measures anovas were statistically significant at p < .001 for 9 of 10 TSI trauma subscales and for both severity and frequency on the MPSS, with moderate to large effect sizes. Reduced trauma symptoms for the group receiving TFT were found for all scales. Reductions in trauma symptoms were sustained at a 2-year follow-up assessment. Limitations, clinical implications, and future research are discussed.  PMID:22708146 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

*Connolly, S. M., Roe-Sepowitz, D., Sakai, C. E., & Edwards, J. (2013). Utilizing community resources to treat PTSD: A randomized controlled study using Thought Field Therapy. African Journal of Traumatic Stress, 3(1), 24-32.

Abstract:

The use of Thought Field Therapy (TFT), a brief therapy technique, is examined in a randomized controlled study, to determine if there is a significant difference in the reduction of trauma symptoms between the treated group and the untreated group. Study participants in the waitlist group received treatment after having completing the posttest. Prior to the study, TFT techniques were taught to Rwandan community leaders, who then provided one-time individual trauma-focused TFT interventions to one hundred and sixty four adult survivors of the 1994 Rwandan genocide in their native language, Kinyarwanda. Pre- and post-intervention assessments of trauma symptoms used were the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) and the Modified Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale (MPSS) translated into Kinyarwanda. Significant differences were found in trauma symptoms and level of PTSD symptom severity and frequency between the treatment and the waitlist control groups. Participants in the waitlist group experienced significant reductions in trauma symptoms following their subsequent treatments, which took place after the first posttest. These positive outcomes suggest that a one-time, community leader facilitated trauma-focused TFT intervention may be beneficial with protracted PTSD in genocide survivors. Key words: Community Resources, PTSD, Rwanda, Thought Field Therapy, Trauma Treatment Keywords: AJTS June 2013 3(1): 00-00

*Robson, R. H., Robson, P. M., Ludwig, R., Mitabu C., & Phillips, C. (2016). Effectiveness of Thought Field Therapy provided by newly instructed community workers to a traumatized population in Uganda: A randomized trial. Current Research in Psychology. doi:10.3844/crpsp.201

Abstract:

Thought Field Therapy (TFT) is a promising treatment for posttraumatic stress in a resource poor environment. This study further explores the benefits of this treatment in a rural population in Uganda, which had suffered from the psychological consequences of previous violent conflict. Thirty-six local community workers received a two-day training in TFT trauma intervention and treated 256 volunteers with symptoms suggestive of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) who had been randomly allocated to a treatment or waitlist (control) group. Assessment was by the Posttraumatic Checklist for Civilians (PCL-C). One week after treatment, the treated group scores had improved significantly from 58 to 26.1. The waitlist group scores did improve without treatment, from 61.2 to 47, although significantly less than the treatment group, but improved markedly to 26.4 following treatment. There was some evidence of persisting benefit 19 months later. This study supports the value of TFT as a rapid, efficient and effective therapy, empowering traumatized communities to treat themselves, although repeated treatment may still be needed.  Keywords: Thought Field Therapy, PTSD, Uganda, Conflict, Community Therapists

A Literature Review of PTSD/TFT Studies in Africa

Dunnewold, A. L. (2014). Thought Field Therapy efficacy following large scale traumatic events. Current Research in Psychology, 5(1), 34-39. doi:10.38/crpsp.2014

Abstract:

Thought Field Therapy Efficacy Following Large Scale Traumatic Events: Description of Four Studies Thought Field Therapy (TFT) has been shown to reduce symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress (PTS) with trauma survivors in four studies in Africa. In a 2006 preliminary study, orphaned Rwandan adolescents, who reported ongoing trauma symptoms since the 1994 genocide, were treated with TFT. A 2008 Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) examined the efficacy of TFT treatments facilitated by Rwandan Community leaders in reducing PTS symptoms in adult survivors of the 1994 genocide. Results of the 2008 study were replicated in a second RCT in Rwanda in 2009. A fourth RCT in Uganda (in preparation for submission) demonstrated significant differences in a third community leader-administered TFT treatment. The studies described here suggest that one-time, community leader-facilitated TFT interventions may be beneficial with protracted PTS in genocide survivors.

Keywords: Posttraumatic Stress (PTS), Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), 1994 Rwandan Genocide, Thought Field Therapy (TFT), Energy Psychology, Trauma, Trauma Survivors, Genocide Survivors, Community-Based Psychological Intervention.

Depression

*Connolly, S. M., & Sakai, C. E. (2011). Brief trauma symptom intervention with Rwandan genocide survivors using Thought Field Therapy. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 13(3), 161-172.

Abstract:

This randomized waitlist control study examined the efficacy of Thought Field Therapy (TFT) in reducing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder symptoms in survivors of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Participants included 145 adult genocide survivors randomly assigned to an immediate TFT treatment group or a waitlist control group. Group differences adjusted for pretest scores and repeated measures anovas were statistically significant at p < .001 for 9 of 10 TSI trauma subscales and for both severity and frequency on the MPSS, with moderate to large effect sizes. Reduced trauma symptoms for the group receiving TFT were found for all scales. Reductions in trauma symptoms were sustained at a 2-year follow-up assessment. Limitations, clinical implications, and future research are discussed.  PMID:22708146 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

*Connolly, S. M., Roe-Sepowitz, D., Sakai, C. E., & Edwards, J. (2013). Utilizing community resources to treat PTSD: A randomized controlled study using Thought Field Therapy. African Journal of Traumatic Stress, 3(1), 24-32.

Abstract:

The use of Thought Field Therapy (TFT), a brief therapy technique, is examined in a randomized controlled study, to determine if there is a significant difference in the reduction of trauma symptoms between the treated group and the untreated group. Study participants in the waitlist group received treatment after having completing the posttest. Prior to the study, TFT techniques were taught to Rwandan community leaders, who then provided one-time individual trauma-focused TFT interventions to one hundred and sixty four adult survivors of the 1994 Rwandan genocide in their native language, Kinyarwanda. Pre- and post-intervention assessments of trauma symptoms used were the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) and the Modified Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale (MPSS) translated into Kinyarwanda. Significant differences were found in trauma symptoms and level of PTSD symptom severity and frequency between the treatment and the waitlist control groups. Participants in the waitlist group experienced significant reductions in trauma symptoms following their subsequent treatments, which took place after the first posttest. These positive outcomes suggest that a one-time, community leader facilitated trauma-focused TFT intervention may be beneficial with protracted PTSD in genocide survivors. Key words: Community Resources, PTSD, Rwanda, Thought Field Therapy, Trauma Treatment Keywords: AJTS June 2013 3(1): 00-00

Anger (Anger/Irritability Scale)

*Connolly, S. M., & Sakai, C. E. (2011). Brief trauma symptom intervention with Rwandan genocide survivors using Thought Field Therapy. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 13(3), 161-172.

Abstract:

This randomized waitlist control study examined the efficacy of Thought Field Therapy (TFT) in reducing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder symptoms in survivors of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Participants included 145 adult genocide survivors randomly assigned to an immediate TFT treatment group or a waitlist control group. Group differences adjusted for pretest scores and repeated measures anovas were statistically significant at p < .001 for 9 of 10 TSI trauma subscales and for both severity and frequency on the MPSS, with moderate to large effect sizes. Reduced trauma symptoms for the group receiving TFT were found for all scales. Reductions in trauma symptoms were sustained at a 2-year follow-up assessment. Limitations, clinical implications, and future research are discussed.  PMID:22708146 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

*Connolly, S. M., Roe-Sepowitz, D., Sakai, C. E., & Edwards, J. (2013). Utilizing community resources to treat PTSD: A randomized controlled study using Thought Field Therapy. African Journal of Traumatic Stress, 3(1), 24-32.

Abstract:

The use of Thought Field Therapy (TFT), a brief therapy technique, is examined in a randomized controlled study, to determine if there is a significant difference in the reduction of trauma symptoms between the treated group and the untreated group. Study participants in the waitlist group received treatment after having completing the posttest. Prior to the study, TFT techniques were taught to Rwandan community leaders, who then provided one-time individual trauma-focused TFT interventions to one hundred and sixty four adult survivors of the 1994 Rwandan genocide in their native language, Kinyarwanda. Pre- and post-intervention assessments of trauma symptoms used were the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) and the Modified Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale (MPSS) translated into Kinyarwanda. Significant differences were found in trauma symptoms and level of PTSD symptom severity and frequency between the treatment and the waitlist control groups. Participants in the waitlist group experienced significant reductions in trauma symptoms following their subsequent treatments, which took place after the first posttest. These positive outcomes suggest that a one-time, community leader facilitated trauma-focused TFT intervention may be beneficial with protracted PTSD in genocide survivors. Key words: Community Resources, PTSD, Rwanda, Thought Field Therapy, Trauma Treatment Keywords: AJTS June 2013 3(1): 00-00 

Flashbacks/Intrusive Memories (Intrusive Experiences Scale)

*Connolly, S. M., & Sakai, C. E. (2011). Brief trauma symptom intervention with Rwandan genocide survivors using Thought Field Therapy. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 13(3), 161-172.

Abstract:

This randomized waitlist control study examined the efficacy of Thought Field Therapy (TFT) in reducing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder symptoms in survivors of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Participants included 145 adult genocide survivors randomly assigned to an immediate TFT treatment group or a waitlist control group. Group differences adjusted for pretest scores and repeated measures anovas were statistically significant at p < .001 for 9 of 10 TSI trauma subscales and for both severity and frequency on the MPSS, with moderate to large effect sizes. Reduced trauma symptoms for the group receiving TFT were found for all scales. Reductions in trauma symptoms were sustained at a 2-year follow-up assessment. Limitations, clinical implications, and future research are discussed.  PMID:22708146 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

*Connolly, S. M., Roe-Sepowitz, D., Sakai, C. E., & Edwards, J. (2013). Utilizing community resources to treat PTSD: A randomized controlled study using Thought Field Therapy. African Journal of Traumatic Stress, 3(1), 24-32.

Abstract:

The use of Thought Field Therapy (TFT), a brief therapy technique, is examined in a randomized controlled study, to determine if there is a significant difference in the reduction of trauma symptoms between the treated group and the untreated group. Study participants in the waitlist group received treatment after having completing the posttest. Prior to the study, TFT techniques were taught to Rwandan community leaders, who then provided one-time individual trauma-focused TFT interventions to one hundred and sixty four adult survivors of the 1994 Rwandan genocide in their native language, Kinyarwanda. Pre- and post-intervention assessments of trauma symptoms used were the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) and the Modified Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale (MPSS) translated into Kinyarwanda. Significant differences were found in trauma symptoms and level of PTSD symptom severity and frequency between the treatment and the waitlist control groups. Participants in the waitlist group experienced significant reductions in trauma symptoms following their subsequent treatments, which took place after the first posttest. These positive outcomes suggest that a one-time, community leader facilitated trauma-focused TFT intervention may be beneficial with protracted PTSD in genocide survivors. Key words: Community Resources, PTSD, Rwanda, Thought Field Therapy, Trauma Treatment Keywords: AJTS June 2013 3(1): 00-00

Avoidance (Defensive Avoidance Scale)

*Connolly, S. M., & Sakai, C. E. (2011). Brief trauma symptom intervention with Rwandan genocide survivors using Thought Field Therapy. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 13(3), 161-172.

Abstract:

This randomized waitlist control study examined the efficacy of Thought Field Therapy (TFT) in reducing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder symptoms in survivors of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Participants included 145 adult genocide survivors randomly assigned to an immediate TFT treatment group or a waitlist control group. Group differences adjusted for pretest scores and repeated measures anovas were statistically significant at p < .001 for 9 of 10 TSI trauma subscales and for both severity and frequency on the MPSS, with moderate to large effect sizes. Reduced trauma symptoms for the group receiving TFT were found for all scales. Reductions in trauma symptoms were sustained at a 2-year follow-up assessment. Limitations, clinical implications, and future research are discussed.  PMID:22708146 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

*Connolly, S. M., Roe-Sepowitz, D., Sakai, C. E., & Edwards, J. (2013). Utilizing community resources to treat PTSD: A randomized controlled study using Thought Field Therapy. African Journal of Traumatic Stress, 3(1), 24-32.

Abstract:

The use of Thought Field Therapy (TFT), a brief therapy technique, is examined in a randomized controlled study, to determine if there is a significant difference in the reduction of trauma symptoms between the treated group and the untreated group. Study participants in the waitlist group received treatment after having completing the posttest. Prior to the study, TFT techniques were taught to Rwandan community leaders, who then provided one-time individual trauma-focused TFT interventions to one hundred and sixty four adult survivors of the 1994 Rwandan genocide in their native language, Kinyarwanda. Pre- and post-intervention assessments of trauma symptoms used were the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) and the Modified Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale (MPSS) translated into Kinyarwanda. Significant differences were found in trauma symptoms and level of PTSD symptom severity and frequency between the treatment and the waitlist control groups. Participants in the waitlist group experienced significant reductions in trauma symptoms following their subsequent treatments, which took place after the first posttest. These positive outcomes suggest that a one-time, community leader facilitated trauma-focused TFT intervention may be beneficial with protracted PTSD in genocide survivors. Key words: Community Resources, PTSD, Rwanda, Thought Field Therapy, Trauma Treatment Keywords: AJTS June 2013 3(1): 00-00

Dissociation (Dissociation Scale)

*Connolly, S. M., & Sakai, C. E. (2011). Brief trauma symptom intervention with Rwandan genocide survivors using Thought Field Therapy. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 13(3), 161-172.

Abstract:

This randomized waitlist control study examined the efficacy of Thought Field Therapy (TFT) in reducing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder symptoms in survivors of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Participants included 145 adult genocide survivors randomly assigned to an immediate TFT treatment group or a waitlist control group. Group differences adjusted for pretest scores and repeated measures anovas were statistically significant at p < .001 for 9 of 10 TSI trauma subscales and for both severity and frequency on the MPSS, with moderate to large effect sizes. Reduced trauma symptoms for the group receiving TFT were found for all scales. Reductions in trauma symptoms were sustained at a 2-year follow-up assessment. Limitations, clinical implications, and future research are discussed.  PMID:22708146 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

*Connolly, S. M., Roe-Sepowitz, D., Sakai, C. E., & Edwards, J. (2013). Utilizing community resources to treat PTSD: A randomized controlled study using Thought Field Therapy. African Journal of Traumatic Stress, 3(1), 24-32.

Abstract:

The use of Thought Field Therapy (TFT), a brief therapy technique, is examined in a randomized controlled study, to determine if there is a significant difference in the reduction of trauma symptoms between the treated group and the untreated group. Study participants in the waitlist group received treatment after having completing the posttest. Prior to the study, TFT techniques were taught to Rwandan community leaders, who then provided one-time individual trauma-focused TFT interventions to one hundred and sixty four adult survivors of the 1994 Rwandan genocide in their native language, Kinyarwanda. Pre- and post-intervention assessments of trauma symptoms used were the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) and the Modified Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale (MPSS) translated into Kinyarwanda. Significant differences were found in trauma symptoms and level of PTSD symptom severity and frequency between the treatment and the waitlist control groups. Participants in the waitlist group experienced significant reductions in trauma symptoms following their subsequent treatments, which took place after the first posttest. These positive outcomes suggest that a one-time, community leader facilitated trauma-focused TFT intervention may be beneficial with protracted PTSD in genocide survivors. Key words: Community Resources, PTSD, Rwanda, Thought Field Therapy, Trauma Treatment Keywords: AJTS June 2013 3(1): 00-00

Sexual Distress (Sexual Concerns Scale)

*Connolly, S. M., & Sakai, C. E. (2011). Brief trauma symptom intervention with Rwandan genocide survivors using Thought Field Therapy. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 13(3), 161-172.

Abstract:

This randomized waitlist control study examined the efficacy of Thought Field Therapy (TFT) in reducing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder symptoms in survivors of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Participants included 145 adult genocide survivors randomly assigned to an immediate TFT treatment group or a waitlist control group. Group differences adjusted for pretest scores and repeated measures anovas were statistically significant at p < .001 for 9 of 10 TSI trauma subscales and for both severity and frequency on the MPSS, with moderate to large effect sizes. Reduced trauma symptoms for the group receiving TFT were found for all scales. Reductions in trauma symptoms were sustained at a 2-year follow-up assessment. Limitations, clinical implications, and future research are discussed.  PMID:22708146 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

*Connolly, S. M., Roe-Sepowitz, D., Sakai, C. E., & Edwards, J. (2013). Utilizing community resources to treat PTSD: A randomized controlled study using Thought Field Therapy. African Journal of Traumatic Stress, 3(1), 24-32.

Abstract:

The use of Thought Field Therapy (TFT), a brief therapy technique, is examined in a randomized controlled study, to determine if there is a significant difference in the reduction of trauma symptoms between the treated group and the untreated group. Study participants in the waitlist group received treatment after having completing the posttest. Prior to the study, TFT techniques were taught to Rwandan community leaders, who then provided one-time individual trauma-focused TFT interventions to one hundred and sixty four adult survivors of the 1994 Rwandan genocide in their native language, Kinyarwanda. Pre- and post-intervention assessments of trauma symptoms used were the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) and the Modified Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale (MPSS) translated into Kinyarwanda. Significant differences were found in trauma symptoms and level of PTSD symptom severity and frequency between the treatment and the waitlist control groups. Participants in the waitlist group experienced significant reductions in trauma symptoms following their subsequent treatments, which took place after the first posttest. These positive outcomes suggest that a one-time, community leader facilitated trauma-focused TFT intervention may be beneficial with protracted PTSD in genocide survivors. Key words: Community Resources, PTSD, Rwanda, Thought Field Therapy, Trauma Treatment Keywords: AJTS June 2013 3(1): 00-00

Dysfunctional Sexual Behavior (Dysfunctional Sexual Behavior Scale)

*Connolly, S. M., & Sakai, C. E. (2011). Brief trauma symptom intervention with Rwandan genocide survivors using Thought Field Therapy. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 13(3), 161-172.

Abstract:

This randomized waitlist control study examined the efficacy of Thought Field Therapy (TFT) in reducing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder symptoms in survivors of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Participants included 145 adult genocide survivors randomly assigned to an immediate TFT treatment group or a waitlist control group. Group differences adjusted for pretest scores and repeated measures anovas were statistically significant at p < .001 for 9 of 10 TSI trauma subscales and for both severity and frequency on the MPSS, with moderate to large effect sizes. Reduced trauma symptoms for the group receiving TFT were found for all scales. Reductions in trauma symptoms were sustained at a 2-year follow-up assessment. Limitations, clinical implications, and future research are discussed.  PMID:22708146 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

*Connolly, S. M., Roe-Sepowitz, D., Sakai, C. E., & Edwards, J. (2013). Utilizing community resources to treat PTSD: A randomized controlled study using Thought Field Therapy. African Journal of Traumatic Stress, 3(1), 24-32.

Abstract:

The use of Thought Field Therapy (TFT), a brief therapy technique, is examined in a randomized controlled study, to determine if there is a significant difference in the reduction of trauma symptoms between the treated group and the untreated group. Study participants in the waitlist group received treatment after having completing the posttest. Prior to the study, TFT techniques were taught to Rwandan community leaders, who then provided one-time individual trauma-focused TFT interventions to one hundred and sixty four adult survivors of the 1994 Rwandan genocide in their native language, Kinyarwanda. Pre- and post-intervention assessments of trauma symptoms used were the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) and the Modified Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale (MPSS) translated into Kinyarwanda. Significant differences were found in trauma symptoms and level of PTSD symptom severity and frequency between the treatment and the waitlist control groups. Participants in the waitlist group experienced significant reductions in trauma symptoms following their subsequent treatments, which took place after the first posttest. These positive outcomes suggest that a one-time, community leader facilitated trauma-focused TFT intervention may be beneficial with protracted PTSD in genocide survivors. Key words: Community Resources, PTSD, Rwanda, Thought Field Therapy, Trauma Treatment Keywords: AJTS June 2013 3(1): 00-00

Self-Esteem/Self Concept (Impaired Self-Reference Scale)

*Connolly, S. M., & Sakai, C. E. (2011). Brief trauma symptom intervention with Rwandan genocide survivors using Thought Field Therapy. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 13(3), 161-172.

Abstract:

This randomized waitlist control study examined the efficacy of Thought Field Therapy (TFT) in reducing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder symptoms in survivors of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Participants included 145 adult genocide survivors randomly assigned to an immediate TFT treatment group or a waitlist control group. Group differences adjusted for pretest scores and repeated measures anovas were statistically significant at p < .001 for 9 of 10 TSI trauma subscales and for both severity and frequency on the MPSS, with moderate to large effect sizes. Reduced trauma symptoms for the group receiving TFT were found for all scales. Reductions in trauma symptoms were sustained at a 2-year follow-up assessment. Limitations, clinical implications, and future research are discussed.  PMID:22708146 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

*Connolly, S. M., Roe-Sepowitz, D., Sakai, C. E., & Edwards, J. (2013). Utilizing community resources to treat PTSD: A randomized controlled study using Thought Field Therapy. African Journal of Traumatic Stress, 3(1), 24-32.

Abstract:

The use of Thought Field Therapy (TFT), a brief therapy technique, is examined in a randomized controlled study, to determine if there is a significant difference in the reduction of trauma symptoms between the treated group and the untreated group. Study participants in the waitlist group received treatment after having completing the posttest. Prior to the study, TFT techniques were taught to Rwandan community leaders, who then provided one-time individual trauma-focused TFT interventions to one hundred and sixty four adult survivors of the 1994 Rwandan genocide in their native language, Kinyarwanda. Pre- and post-intervention assessments of trauma symptoms used were the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) and the Modified Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale (MPSS) translated into Kinyarwanda. Significant differences were found in trauma symptoms and level of PTSD symptom severity and frequency between the treatment and the waitlist control groups. Participants in the waitlist group experienced significant reductions in trauma symptoms following their subsequent treatments, which took place after the first posttest. These positive outcomes suggest that a one-time, community leader facilitated trauma-focused TFT intervention may be beneficial with protracted PTSD in genocide survivors. Key words: Community Resources, PTSD, Rwanda, Thought Field Therapy, Trauma Treatment Keywords: AJTS June 2013 3(1): 00-00

Acting Out Behavior (Tension Reduction Behavior Scale)

*Connolly, S. M., & Sakai, C. E. (2011). Brief trauma symptom intervention with Rwandan genocide survivors using Thought Field Therapy. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 13(3), 161-172.

Abstract:

This randomized waitlist control study examined the efficacy of Thought Field Therapy (TFT) in reducing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder symptoms in survivors of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Participants included 145 adult genocide survivors randomly assigned to an immediate TFT treatment group or a waitlist control group. Group differences adjusted for pretest scores and repeated measures anovas were statistically significant at p < .001 for 9 of 10 TSI trauma subscales and for both severity and frequency on the MPSS, with moderate to large effect sizes. Reduced trauma symptoms for the group receiving TFT were found for all scales. Reductions in trauma symptoms were sustained at a 2-year follow-up assessment. Limitations, clinical implications, and future research are discussed.  PMID:22708146 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

*Connolly, S. M., Roe-Sepowitz, D., Sakai, C. E., & Edwards, J. (2013). Utilizing community resources to treat PTSD: A randomized controlled study using Thought Field Therapy. African Journal of Traumatic Stress, 3(1), 24-32.

Abstract:

The use of Thought Field Therapy (TFT), a brief therapy technique, is examined in a randomized controlled study, to determine if there is a significant difference in the reduction of trauma symptoms between the treated group and the untreated group. Study participants in the waitlist group received treatment after having completing the posttest. Prior to the study, TFT techniques were taught to Rwandan community leaders, who then provided one-time individual trauma-focused TFT interventions to one hundred and sixty four adult survivors of the 1994 Rwandan genocide in their native language, Kinyarwanda. Pre- and post-intervention assessments of trauma symptoms used were the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI) and the Modified Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale (MPSS) translated into Kinyarwanda. Significant differences were found in trauma symptoms and level of PTSD symptom severity and frequency between the treatment and the waitlist control groups. Participants in the waitlist group experienced significant reductions in trauma symptoms following their subsequent treatments, which took place after the first posttest. These positive outcomes suggest that a one-time, community leader facilitated trauma-focused TFT intervention may be beneficial with protracted PTSD in genocide survivors. Key words: Community Resources, PTSD, Rwanda, Thought Field Therapy, Trauma Treatment Keywords: AJTS June 2013 3(1): 00-00

Qualitative Study of Rwandan Therapists’ Experiences

Edwards J. (2016). Healing in Rwanda: The words of the therapists. The International Journal of Healing and Caring, 16(1). Retrieved from http://ijhc.org/2015/12/ijhc-master-table-of-contents-full/

Abstract:

In 2009, four therapists from the United Sates presented the basic algorithm training in Thought Field Therapy (TFT) to 36 respected community members at the Izere Center (Center for Hope) in the Northern District of Rwanda. A year later, 35 of the trained therapists reported in an interview that they had treated an average of 37.50 people each (SD = 25.37). They had met with each person an average of 3.19 sessions (SD = 1.08) to assist with various issues. They reported that they had treated from 3 (n = 1, 2.9%) to 123 (n = 1, 2.9%) people. They also shared their experiences during the year following treatment. The therapists reported that prior to the Thought Field Therapy treatments, their clients had experienced anger, fear, headaches, hopelessness, anxiety, loneliness, and sadness. They reported that after the treatment, people’s lives had changed. They felt happy, their trauma was gone, they felt better than before they had come to the therapist for help, they had regained hope, they wanted to work, and their fears were gone. The therapists reported that TFT had made a difference when their clients took it seriously and wanted help, the clients had memories of the trauma and knew what they wanted to work on, the therapists prepared the clients for TFT by explaining it, and the clients followed directions. They reported that it did not appear to help the clients when the clients went home to conditions of poverty and confused the adversities of poverty with the symptoms of genocide trauma, the clients were not aware of the problem, the clients wanted to beg or misled the therapist, and the clients doubted that it would work. The clients were pleased with their treatments; gave testimonies about the help they had received; were grateful; returned to say, “Thank you;” and brought other clients for treatment. The therapists believed that TFT had made a difference in the community. The therapists reported that TFT is really effective, they indicated that a positive aspect of TFT is that people can treat themselves, and they recommended that TFT be used throughout Rwanda. Key words: Thought Field Therapy, TFT, Energy Psychology, Rwanda, PTSD, Trauma

The following studies have been done on Thought Field Therapy® (TFT):

  • Blaich (1988) found that readers improved in their reading speed by 45% after using Dr. Callahan’s treatment of tapping the side of the hand for Psychological Reversal.
  • Yancey (2002) found that middle school students used Thought Field Therapy® to eliminate angry and violent feelings, to achieve at higher levels in school, and to overcome difficulties in relationships with friends and family. Adults used TFT with students to assist them in improving their scores on tests, relieve stress, get along better with family members and friends, overcome violent feelings, and grow in self-confidence. They also used it with themselves, their families and their friends to overcome stress.
  • In 714 participants who were treated for 1,594 problems, paired-samples t-tests indicated significant reduction on the Subjective Units of Distress (0-10) self-report scale in 31 categories from pretest to posttest (Sakai et al., 2001).*
  • Thought Field Therapy® significantly decreased phobia of needles as measured prior to the treatment and a month later using the questions on the Fear Survey Schedule (FSS) related to blood-injection-injury phobia and the Subjective Units of Distress (1-10) self-report scale (Darby, 2002).
  • Thought Field Therapy® significantly decreased fear of speaking in public as measured by the Subjective Units of Distress (1-10) self-report scale and the Speaker Anxiety Scale (Schoninger, 2004).
  • Of 105 survivors in Kosovo who had 249 traumas, 103 reported complete absence of the trauma with 247 of the traumas. Presence or absence of the “bad moment” (p. 1238), or trauma, was used due to cultural taboos against the use of the Subjective Units of Distress (1-10) self-report scale. The results remained an average of five months later (Johnson, 2001).*
  • Thirty-one immigrants to the United States showed a statistically significant decrease in post-traumatic symptoms as indicated by scores on the Posttraumatic Checklist-C, as well as on their Subjective Units of Distress (1-10) self-report scale from before the Thought Field Therapy® treatment to 30 days later (Folkes, 2002).
  • Diepold and Goldstein (2008) conducted a case study to examine the effects of Thought Field Therapy® on brain waves. They found significant differences between the brain waves of the participant when she was thinking about a trauma and when she was thinking about a neutral event. Immediately after being treated with Thought Field Therapy® for a trauma, her brain waves were altered to be like those of the neutral state. The participant’s breathing patterns were also normal after the treatment. Eighteen months after the treatment, she reported being free of flashbacks to the trauma.
  • The client in Callahan (2004) went from a Stage IV (in her bone‑marrow) Non‑Hodgkins Lymphoma to being cancer free in two years. She used Thought Field Therapy® to live a normal lifestyle, avoid the side effects of the medication, and be free from fear and anxiety. She had been free of cancer for a year and three months. As of this writing, she has been free of cancer for eight years, as of 3/10. She was able to comply with the doctor’s orders and avoid taking any additional medications (i.e., for depression, anxiety, etc.).
  • Carbonell (1995) conducted a study to asses the effectiveness of TFT with acrophobia, or fear of heights. The 49 participants took the Cohen acrophobia questionnaire, were rated on their behavioral response to their phobia, and were randomly assigned to treatment or placebo groups. The placebo groups tapped on random parts of their bodies, while the experimental group received Thought Field Therapy® treatments. Carbonell found statistically significant differences between members of the experimental group and members of the placebo group.
  • Carbonell and Figley (1999) examined Traumatic Incident Reduction, Visual-Kinesthetic Disassociation, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing, and Thought Field Therapy®. All practitioners followed a similar protocol. Thirty-nine participants were treated. All four approaches appeared to have immediate impact, as well as some lasting impact.
  • Callahan (2001) presented 20 cases in which he and other therapists had treated clients using Thought Field Therapy®. Improvements in Heart Rate Variability (HRV) corresponded with decreases in the degree of upset. Improvements in HRV were also greater than what is found in the literature.
  • Wade (1990) employed the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale and the Self-Concept Evaluation of Location form. One month after the participants in the experimental group (28) had filled out the instruments, they received treatment with Thought Field Therapy®. The members of the control group (25) received nothing. Sixteen of the participants in the experimental group dropped four or more points in their Subjective Units of Distress scale (SUD), while just four members of the control group decreased two or more points. Two months after the treatment, all participants filled out the instruments again. Participants in the experimental group showed significant improvements on three of the subscales.
  • Pasahow (2005) used Thought Field Therapy® to treat 12 clients for pain. Immediately after the treatments, participants had an average reduction of 82% (SD = 39%), with 10 of the clients experiencing great relief (to a 0 or 1) and two of the clients not experiencing any relief. The relief lasted from 4 to 96 hours for the 10 clients who experienced relief, with the average length of time being 33.2 hours (SD = 38.3 hours).
  • Pasahow (1997) used Thought Field Therapy® to eliminate dizziness in three clients. The dizziness was still gone 10 weeks later for one client, 6 weeks later for another client, and “weeks later” (p. 3) for the other client.
  • Callahan (1987) treated 68 people who called in to talk shows with Thought Field Therapy-Voice Technology with a 97% success rate. The average treatment time was 4.34 minutes, and the SUD went from an average of 8.35 on a 1 to 10 scale to an average of 2.10, for a mean decrease of 6.25 points.
  • Leonoff (1995) also treated 68 people who called in to talk shows with Thought Field Therapy-Voice Technology with a 97% success rate. The average treatment time was 6.04 minutes, and the SUD went from an average of 8.19 on a 1 to 10 scale to an average of 1.58, for a mean decrease of 6.61 points.
  • Perry (2008) conducted case studies and found that when toxins were tested and eliminated, traumas and phobias were treated, panic attacks ceased, heart rate variability moved toward normal, and clients became calmer.

References

Blaich, R. (1988). Applied kinesiology and human performance. Selected papers of the International College of Applied Kinesiology, (Winter), 1-15.

Callahan, J. (2004). Using Thought Field Therapy® (TFT) to support and complement a medical treatment for cancer: A case history. The International Journal of Healing and Caring On-Line, 4(3).

Callahan, R.J. (1987). Successful treatment of phobias and anxiety by telephone and radio. Originally published in Collected Papers, ICAK. Now published (2004) TFT: The early papers. La Quinta, CA: Callahan Techniques.

Callahan, R.J. (2001). The impact of Thought Field Therapy on heart rate variability. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(10), 1153-1170.

Carbonell, J.L. (1997). An experimental study of TFT and acrophobia. The Thought Field, 2(3), 1-6.

Carbonell, J.L., & Figley, C. (1999). A systematic clinical demonstration of promising PTSD treatment approaches. TRAUMATOLOGY, 5(1), Article 4.

Connolly, S., Sakai, C. (2011) International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, Brief Trauma Intervention with Rwandan Genocide-Survivors Using Thought Field Therapy, (13) 3, 161-172

Connolly, S., Sakai, C., Edwards, J. (2013)  Utilizing community resources to treat PTSD: A randomized controlled study using Thought Field Therapy, African Journal of Traumatic Stress, (3)1, June 2013, 24-32

Darby, D. W. (2002). The efficacy of Thought Field Therapy as a treatment modality for individuals diagnosed with blood-injection-injury phobia.  Dissertation Abstracts International, 64 (03), 1485B.  (UMI No. 3085152)

Diepold, J.H., Jr., & Goldstein, D.M. (2008). Thought Field Therapy and QEEG changes in the treatment of trauma: A case study. Traumatology OnlineFirst, November 9, 2008.

Folkes, C. (2002). Thought Field Therapy and trauma recovery. International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 4(2), 99-104.

Johnson, C., Shala, M., Sejdijaj, X., Odell, R., & Dabishevci, D. (2001). Thought Field Therapy: Soothing the bad moments of Kosovo.  Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(10), 1237-1240.*

Leonoff, G. (1995). The rapid treatment of phobias and anxiety by radio and telephone: A replication of Callahan’s study of 1987. Thought Field Newsletter, 1(2).

Morikawa, A. I. H.  (2005). Toward the clinical applications of Thought Field Therapy to the treatment of bulimia nervosa in Japan.  Unpublished doctoral dissertation, California Coast University, Santa Ana.

Pasahow, R.J. (1997). Thought Field Therapy and dizziness. The Thought Field, 3(2), 3.

Pasahow, R. (2005). Thought Field Therapy and pain. The Thought Field, 11(2), 2-5.

Perry, T. (2008). Chemical fragrances: Effects on the autonomic nervous system. Positive Health Magazine, 150(Aug./Sept.).

Sakai, C., Paperny, D., Mathews, M., Tanida, G., Boyd, G., Simons, A., Yamamoto, C., Mau, C., & Nutter, L. (2001). Thought Field Therapy clinical applications: Utilization in an HMO in behavioral medicine and behavioral health services. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(10), 1215-1227.*

Sakai, C., Connolly, S., Oas, P. (2010) International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, Treatment of PTSD in Rwandan Child Genocide Survivors Using Thougth Field Therapy, (12)1, 41-49

Sakai, C., Paperny, D., Mathews, M., Tanida, G., Boyd, G., Simons, A., Yamamoto, C., Mau, C., & Nutter, L. (2001). Thought Field Therapy clinical applications: Utilization in an HMO in behavioral medicine and behavioral health services. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(10), 1215-1227

Schoninger, B. (2004). Efficacy of Thought Field Therapy (TFT) as a treatment modality for persons with public speaking anxiety.  Dissertation Abstracts International, 65 (10), 5455.  (UMI No. AAT 3149748)

Wade, J. (1990). The effects of the Callahan phobia treatment technique on self concept. Doctoral dissertation, The Professional School of Professional Psychology, San Diego.

Yancey, V. (2002). The use of Thought Field Therapy in educational settings.  Dissertation Abstracts International, 63 (07), 2470A.  (UMI No. 3059661)

*The Journal of Clinical Psychology articles were not peer reviewed and were published with invited critical reviews.

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